Today, April 12, we celebrate the World Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics.
And celebrate 60 years of the flight of Yuri Gagarin into space.
On April 12, 1961 at 9.07 hours Moscow time from the Baikonur “cosmodrome” off spacecraft “Vostok” with pilot-cosmonaut Yuriy Gagarin. The ship made one orbit the Earth for 108 minutes. Two days later, Gagarin was officially welcomed the Red Square in Moscow in front of thousands of people came to see it.
Significant contribution to the theory and practice of fields imported German scientist Otto Lilienthal. Between 1891 and 1896 he designed, built and pouring several glider. On December 17, 1903 was carried out the first successful airplane flight by the Wright Brothers American mechanics with an internal combustion engine, working with aviation fuels.
The term “spacecraft” introduces D. E. Langemak. The beginning of the practical utilization of space is set to October 4, 1957 with the launch of the first artificial earth satellite (satellites) in the Soviet Union. The next stage in the management of space comes just a month later – on 4 November the same year with “Sputnik – 2” in the universe is sent the first living creature – the dog Laika. His fate was predetermined, as it is not envisaged that the ship back to Earth.
Here are some of the most important cosmic events:
- October 4, 1957 – the first launched UAA (USSR)
- April 12, 1961 – the first manned flight into space (Yuri Gagarin, USSR)
- March 18, 1965 – first release of man in space (Alexei Leonov, USSR)
- July 21, 1969 – a walk on the moon (Neil Armstrong, USA)
- April 19, 1971 – the first orbital station (USSR), and later with the US, creating international station
- March 3, 1972 – start of the first apparatus, subsequently left the confines of the solar system (“Pioneer-10”, USA)
- April 12, 1981 – output of the first vessel orbit reusable (“Colombia”, USA)
On July 19, 1960 in space is displayed Soviet ship “Sputnik 5” with the dogs Belka and Arrow. The aim of the experiment is to test the effectiveness of the security of life in space and study the impact of cosmic rays on living organisms. Dogs Belka and Arrow were the first living creatures returned safely to Earth.
The peak moment in the utilization of space occurs on April 12, 1961, when the Universe was sent to the first person, the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and later that day was declared International Day of Cosmonautics.
Space History of Bulgaria
Began in August 1964 when the intake of the Minister of Defence of the USSR Marshal Rodion Malinovsky military attaché at the Embassy of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria Lieutenant General aviation Zahari Zahariev raises questions about the flight of Bulgarians in space with Soviet spacecraft. In 1964, however, is impossible. The Soviet Union has no suitable spaceship for such flights.
The dream became reality in 1977 when under the program “Intercosmos” when the second group of countries (after the first Czechoslovak, Polish People’s Republic and the GDR) consisting of the Republic of Bulgaria, Cuba, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Mongolian People’s Republic iSotsialisticheska Republic of Romania sends its candidates for cosmonauts in Training Centre of Cosmonauts’ J. A. Gagarin “.
- Strict selection shortens candidates to 4 people:
- Alexander Panayotov Alexandrov
- George Lyubenov Iovchev
- Georgi Ivanov Kakalov
- Ivan Nakov
Depart for Moscow. Soviet doctors found George Iovchev heart problem and he fell. Finally decided that the main applicant will Georgi Kakalov and Voices – Alexander Alexandrov. Due to the unpleasant matter of Russian surname Kakalov the main candidate is decided to be used his father’s Ivanov.
Bulgaria gets a second chance to send an astronaut into orbit in 1986, when returning from a visit to the USSR Defence Minister Army General PRB Good Djurov announced that he has managed to negotiate with the Soviets sent into space a second cosmonaut. Protocol for the preparation and conduct of a joint Bulgarian-Soviet space flight was signed in Moscow on August 22, 1986
It was decided to arrange financing through design and production of scientific equipment worth seven million foreign lev ($ 14 million at the then exchange rate) to surrender to the Soviet Union. Technology for this equipment are provided free of charge by the Soviet Union of the PRB. After a thorough medical selection of more than 300 airmen from the Bulgarian Air Force remaining 10 candidates, of which arrived in Bulgaria Soviet medics choose 4 people:
- Alexander Alexandrov
- Plamen Alexandrov
- Nikolai Raikov
- Krasimir Stoyanov
In Moscow, Soviet doctors detect problems Plamen Alexandrov and the band is made up of 3 people. Were finally selected two candidates:
- Alexander Alexandrov – a prime candidate
- Krasimir Stoyanov – understudy.
Space assets of Bulgaria have appointed its place one of the leading space powers in the world during the 20th century.
Huge contribution to both Bulgarian cosmonauts Georgi Ivanov and Alexander Alexandrov, exceptional are the original products of Bulgarian-made space equipment and the fact is that Bulgaria is the third country food sent into space after the United States and the Soviet Union and the first in creating a space greenhouses. Bulgarian Space food is the work of the Institute of Cryobiology and liofizatsiya and special merit has team Acad. Tsvetan Tsvetkov. Today astronauts of any gender and nationality eating your favorite food in space and rightly blessed Bulgarian scientific genius.
The most exciting event in our space activity at the end of the 70s was the preparation of the scientific program and the start of the first Bulgarian astronaut Georgi Ivanov. The flight was very dramatic – due to failure of the main engine could not be done with the suspension station Salyut and was questionable return astronauts themselves on the ground! They showed extremely cool and managed to return safely. One of the most important scientific research achievements was the “Bulgaria 1300”. They were orbiting two artificial earth satellite with a set of Bulgarian scientific instrumentation for measurements of physical parameters that had even the US “Daynamik Explorer”, which was flying at the same time. After these great successes, our scientists with Russia, France and Germany in leading the participation of Bulgaria, was established multichannel system TCS and complex videospektrometrichen and navigation complex “Frégate.
In 1988, on board the “Soyuz TM-5” flew to the orbital station MIR second Bulgarian cosmonaut Alexander Alexandrov. For this flight was developed extensive scientific program and the apparatus for complex studies of space physics, remote sensing of the Earth, space biology and medicine, microgravity technology .Byaha received very interesting new data and results. In 1982 work began on major projects “Interball” and “Cosmic greenhouse world” whose scientific programs were implemented successfully until 2000, completed the unique scientific results and glorified Bulgarian scientists. Space conservatory World is the world’s first automated system for conducting annual ten experiments with plants, involving many international crews with different cultures. Obtained results are unique in the field of fundamental gravitational biology.
Space science in Bulgaria does not end there, ends only necessary for its normal development funding.
Bulgarian plants and food in space
It has been shown that weightlessness is not an obstacle to full development cycle from seed sown on board to be born “space plants” and they can be used for food and purification of air crews in future long flights of man initially to Mars .. And today Bulgarian scientists have sought after partner and it can be argued that there is a large international project in which they are not invited to participate specialists from Bulgaria. And now on board the International Space Station is set up in our equipment investigation and control of radiation environment One of the most prestigious achievements of Bulgarian science is the creation of the cosmic menu. Our Space food is the work of scientists from the Institute of Cryobiology and lyophilization, developing modern biotechnology for cold preservation and isushavane of biological materials in a vacuum. As a result, of the water content in them is reduced to a level of 2 to 5%., i.e. they are sublimated. In the list of our space foods included yogurt with oatmeal, several kinds of nuts, a set of freeze-dried fruit – strawberries, apples apricots, peaches, melon, and others. Bulgarian menu is adapted to a four-day diet – two breakfasts, lunch and dinner. Typical of this type of foods is that they have a duration of up to 5 years storage. They meet the requirements of the body from food organic substances such average is 3000-3200 kcal.
Space (satellite) communications
On May 24, 1987 is held the first in the history of Bulgarian military satellite connection between the station chief of staff with Anton Ivanov from Sofia, with crew: Vasil Vasilev Yordanov – deputy, Valentin Stanchev Tsanov Emil Spasov Stoyanov, Tony Dentchev Iliev Iliev and Stefan Stefanov and station Navy with Emil Popov Head of Varna, with crew Pavel Pavlov, deputy.
Because of the risk to miss someone will not recite all the others who have contributed in one way or another for this achievement.